--> NAPE and AAPG West Africa Deepwater Regional Conference, November 14-18, 2004; #90037 (2005)

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NAPE* and AAPG West Africa Deepwater Regional Conference

November 14-18, 2004, Abuja, Nigeria

Search and Discovery Article #90037 (2005)
Posted March, 2005

*Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists



Lithofacies Association, Stratal Geometries and Stratigraphic Stacking in Deepwater Slope Channel Systems: Examples from Ainsa Basin (Spain), and Edop Field (Offshore Nigeria)
by V. Abreu and R. Hill

Heavy Metals Concentrations in the Sediments of Lagos Lagoon Using Different Geochemical Phases
by A. O. Adedeji and A. O. Falana

Identification of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs from Seismic Gathers AVO Analysis in the Offshore Niger Delta
by A. Adekanle

Enhancing Seismic Interpretation with CDP Gathers
by Ayorinde Adekanle, John P. Benoit, and Rex A. Hanson

Hydrocarbon Potential Assessment of the Maastrichtian Araromi Shales in the Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria
by Olabisi A. Adekeye and Samuel O. Akande

Acid Generating Potential of Coals from Benue Trough, Nigeria
by T. M. Adene

Influence of Slope Gradient on Reservoir Distribution and Architecture in Slope Setting - An Example from Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria
by Adedayo Adeogba, Timothy R. McHargue, and Stephen A. Graham

ERHA Development: Drilling and Completion Optimization
by Olatunji Adeola and Chuck Duginski

Strategic Human Capacity Building for the Georesources Industry in Africa -A Way Forward
by Michael Adewunmi

Using Integrated Reservoir Management to Quantify Geomechanical Effects on Borehole Stability; A Quick Look at Sand Prediction
by John Afilaka, Tomi Fasae, and Gbenga E. Komolafe

Effects of Depositional Environments on Hydrocarbon Production from Sandstone Reservoirs
by Peter Damian Emeka Agbata

Seismic Attributes in Subsurface Hydrocarbon Reservoir Mapping: A Case History of 3D Seismic Interpretation Over Timbe Field, Niger Delta
by U. O. Aikulola and M. A. Olorunniwo

Integrating Seismic Data with Well Logs in Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping: A Case Study of Emi Field Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria
by A. P. Aizebeokhai and A. I. Olayinka

Human Capital Development and Capacity Enhancement through International Collaborative Graduate Programmes
by J. A. Ajienka, M. B. Ebong, A. Akpan, A. Abolarin, and Philippe Beun

Cretaceous Source Rocks and Thermal Maturation Patterns in the Nigerian Inland Basins: Implications for Deepwater Exploration
by Samuel O. Akande

Niger Delta Petroleum Systems: Inferences from Light Hydrocarbons Geochemistry
by Akinsehinwa Akinlua, T. R. Ajayi, and B. B. Adeleke

Variation in Texture and Strength of Nigerian Tar Sand: Implication for E&P of the Niger Delta Deep Water
by D. A. Alao and J. T. Kazeem

Genetic Sequence Stratigraphy of the Oligocene-Miocene Niger Delta: Seismic Responses, Biostratigraphic Resolutions and Hydrocarbon Occurrence
by Douglas O. Anunugwo, E. A. Ayolabi, and L. Adeoti

Integrated Biostratigraphic and Geochemical Studies as a Supplementary Tool for the Stratigraphic Review of EZ and BZ Oil Fields in the Western Niger Delta
by Uzoamaka O. Anyaeji and I. M. Akaegbobi

Investigating the Sealing Properties of a Major Growth Fault and its roles in Hydrocarbon Distribution - A Case Study of JEGE Field Southeastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
by Ayodele Ariyo

A Dinocyst Biozonation Framework for Cretaceous and Tertiary Sediments in Benin-1 Well, Benin Flank, Southern Nigeria
by Anthonia Nwaneze Asadu and Franklin Adebayo Lucas

Developing Human Assets and Knowledge Management: Preparing Professionals for the Oil Industry in West Africa
by Enife F. Atobiloye

An Inversion Software (GOA_RES 1.0) for Schlumberger Resistivity Sounding Data Interpretation
by Gboyega O. Ayeni and M. O. Olorunfemi

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Sequence Stratigraphy of "X" Field in the Coastal Swamp Depobelt of the Niger Delta, Nigeria
by Ademolu Balogun

Deepwater Exploration and Development Activities in Offshore Nigeria: Waste Management Challenges
by Tokunbo Gbolagade Balogun, Augustine E. Ejiofor, and Ikechukwu Charles Okoro

Predicting Oil Quality in Present Day Deepwater Drilling Environments
by W. Owen BeMent

Information Management and Data Availability as a Way Forward in the Oil Industry
by Philip Benyeogor

Unraveling Complex Albian Reservoir-Trap-Seal Systems, Lower Congo Basin, Cabinda, Angola
by Bryan R. Bracken

Namibe Basin: Deepwater Exploration Potential
by Mateus Brito, Carlos Figueiredo, and Murthy Inkollu

Integrated Approaches Expedite Geologic Models and Well Planning in the Bose Deepwater Development OPL209, Nigeria
by Paul Brown, Wasiu Odufisan, Martin Eze, Earl Fashbaugh, Lincoln Foreman, Patrick Kenney, Rebecca Saltzer, and Astri Sokn

AVO Based Prediction of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in Sand Reservoirs and Assessment of Uncertainty. The Abo field Case History
by Maurizio Cardamone

Hydrocarbon Prediction in Offshore Deepwater Niger Delta: Case study of Fold Play
by Chidi Chukwueke and Emmanuel I. Enu

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4D Regional Evolution of Gravity Driven Systems: Comparison between Salt and Shale Tectonics and Petroleum Implications
by Philippe de Clarens, Xavier du Bernard, Jean-Loup Montenat, and Stephane Raillard

Locating Appraisal Wells in the Tombua Field Using Inversion of Wide Angle AVO to Lithology,  Block 14, Offshore Angola
by Guy Delorme and Mark Ian Smithard

Ofon Field Development: Challenges of Monitoring a Complex Turbiditic Field
by Emmanuel De-Pierrefeu, Daniel Ekpenyong, Nnamdi Amechi, and Renaud Perret-Du-Cray

The Role of Fault Kinematics and Capture in the Western Niger Delta and the Control of Sediment and Reservoir Distribution
by Jacob Diedjomahor and Eric Frost

3D Static Modeling of a Deep Water Nigeria Field, using Training Image-Based Modeling
by Mark W. Dixon

Obtaining Porosity and Density in Cased Holes for Formation Evaluation in Nigeria
by Mohammed Doghmi, Parijat Mukerji, Luca Zanichelli, and Francesco Zanin

LWD Density-Neutron Image Logs in Clastic Facies Evaluation - Example from Offshore Niger Delta
by Mohammed Doghmi, Taofeek Ogunyemi, and Peter Schlicht

The Application of Fluid Flow Analysis in Evaluating Reservoir Connectivity
by Joe Dulibeako and Austin Ubeh

Long Offset AVO in an Integrated Approach for Optimized Field Development Planning on the AKPO Field, Nigeria
by Annie Durand, Laurent Guy, Rosnes Rune Hope, Henri Houllevigue, Severine Lalande, Frederic Merlet, and M. Rowlands

Geology and Development Challenges of Deepwater Deposits (KC Field Case Study, Nigeria)
by Ufot Ekanem Ebong

Variation in Tectonic Style Along the West African Margin and its Control on Sedimentation
by Rosemary A. Edwards, Christian Berndt, Lindsay M. Parson, and Doug Evans

Application of Multicriteria Analysis to Delineate Oil-Polluted Zones in Parts of Lagos Coastline Area, Southwestern Nigeria
by O. A. Ehinola. M. A. Oladunjoye, and U. G. Okwuogoli

Biomarkers and Geochemical Evaluation of Shale Units of the Maastrichtian Patti Formation, Bida Basin, Nigeria
by O. A. Ehinola, O. O. Sonibare, and A. M. Falana

Petroleum Systems Analysis and Comparison of Inversion Structures (Turtles and Half Turtles), Eastern Salt Canopy Trend: Deepwater Gulf of Mexico
by Richard Eisenberg, Wes Combs, Matthew Johnson, and Kevin Eastham

Regional Sequence Stratigraphy and Sand Fairways as Controls on Hydrocarbon Occurrence in The Niger Delta
by Joe Ejedawe, Benedikt Lehner, Steve Meyer, Femi Olugbemiro, Lisa Fullarton, Ohams Agwunobi, Julius Agbo, and Jorge Calvache

Source-Rocks of Giant Hydrocarbon Deposits in Deep Offshore, Niger Delta
by Chukwuemeka M. Ekweozor

Identification and Characterization of Deepwater Petroleum Systems using Surface Geochemistry Direct Technology
by Vladimir O. Elias and Paul Brooks

Ten Years of PSC Deepwater Exploration in Nigeria (1993 -2003); the Shell Experience
by Emmanuel I. Enu

Impact of 3D Seismic Re-interpretation of OML 20: The Oguta North Prospect
by Ralf Esedo and Berti Ozumba

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Plays, Traps and Petroleum Systems in the Deepwater Niger Delta
by O. O. Fadahunsi, S. R. Lawrence, M. Richards, and R. Bray

Calcareous Nannofossil Biozonation Scheme for the Deep Offshore Niger Delta
by Lawrence S. Fadiya and Babajide M. Salami

Issues and Challenges of Developing Human Assets for the West African Oil & Gas Industry
by Gabriel Falade

Application of Volume Interpretation Techniques to Deepwater Reservoirs: Examples from Nigeria
by Olugbenga Famurewa and Isaiah Okunlola

Visualizing the Interpretation of Faults from 3D Seismic Data
by Malcolm Francis

Integrated Hydrocarbon System Analysis in SPDC
by Herwig H. Ganz, Uzor Aneke, Charles Anowai, Joe Ejedawe, Beni Lehner, and Kehinde Ladipo

New Ways of Looking at the Evolution of Entrenched Sinuous Channels off Angola
by Martin James Roland Gee, Samuel Julio Friedmann, and Robert L. Gawthorpe

Estimating Net:Gross from Data Histograms: Examples from Deepwater Turbidites
by Douglas Goff

Hydrocarbon Controls in the Southeastern Niger Delta
by Paul J. Hicks and George I. Unomah

Benguela Belize - Lobito Tomboco Development, Block 14: Angola's Next Deepwater Hub
by William G. Higgs and Joaquim Fernandes

Narrowing Uncertainty by Pre-Drilling Development Wells: Benguela, Belize, Lobito and Tomboco Fields, Block 14, Angola
by William G. Higgs, John G. Moore, Pedro V. Chicato, and Esperanca Rosa

The Challenges of Hydrocarbon Exploration in a Deepwater Complex Salt Cored Fold and Thrust Belt, Block 31 Angola
by Geoffrey S. Hill

Stratigraphic Controls on West African Deepwater Reservoir Connectivity and Production Performance
by Rob E. Hill

The Challenges of Hydrocarbon Exploration in Deepwater Complex Salt Cored Fold and Thrust Belt, Block 31, Angola
by Geoffrey S. Hill, Ilidio Domingoes Silva, and Andrew Los

Deepwater Reservoir Architectures of the Bonga-SW/ Aparo Field
by Andrew R. Hoover

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The Sedimentology and Provenance Studies of Stream Sediments from Edunabon Area and its Environs, Southwestern Nigeria
by C. C. Igwe and M. B. Salami

Lacustrine Petroleum System in South Atlantic Region Angola
by Murthy Inkollu, Leonor Binga, and Carlos Figueiredo

Use of Seismic Forward Modeling and Rock Property Analysis to Evaluate and Classify Resources, Deepwater Offshore Nigeria
by Sunkanmi Iyiola, Alan D. Fuqua, and Jeffrey S. Ogilvie

Lower Congo Basin Turbidites Challenges: Fulfilling Current Activities and Preparing the Future
by Jean Jacques Jarrige and Jean-Jacques Biteau

Prediction of Hydrocarbon Type and Quality: Geochemical Analyses of Gas, Oil, and Rock Samples
by Daniel M. Jarvie, C. Jiang, Hossein Alimi, Patrick Obot, and O. S. Adegoke

Petroleum Prospectivity of the Deepwater Orange Basin, South Africa
by Agnes N. Jikelo

Exploration and Production; A Near Decade of Success in Block 14, Angola
by Paula Joao, Mark Krolow, and Nelson Pacavira

Porosity, Permeability and Capillary Pressure Properties of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the North Sea using Pore Size Distribution Method
by Olufemi Jokanola

An Integrated Reservoir Quality Case Study of Deepwater Lithofacies in the Edop Field, OML 67, Offshore Nigeria
by Mustafa A. Jubril, M. A. Rosin, A. R. Liesch, D. Ying, M. L. Roth, M. J. Hayes, and D. A. DeBram

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Hydrocarbon Charge in Deepwater Nigeria An Evolving Story
by Barry Katz and Kelly Dempster

Oil Quality in Deepwater Settings: Concerns, Perceptions, Observations, and Reality
by Barry Katz and Vaughn Robison

Exploration and Development of the Lombo East and Estrela Oil Fields: Typical Pinda Carbonate Fields in the Lower Congo Basin, Offshore Angola
by Tako Koning and Mark Smithard

Petroleum Biodegradation in West. Africa and Western Canada-Contrasts and Similarities. A Review of Biodegradation, a Key Process in the Origin of Deep Water Oil and Gas Accumulations
by Steve Larter, Femi Jokanola, Jennifer Adams, Haiping Huang, Barry Bennett, Cindy Riediger, and Martin Jones

Sequence Correlation Across Major Depositional 'Cells' in NW Niger Delta
by Louise Linden, Val Onyia, Adedoja Ojelabi, Joshua Adubiobi, and Unwana Nkeme

Global Processes in the Petroleum Industry and Academia: A Geoscience Perspective
by Michael G. Loudin and N. R. Stewart

The Relevance of the Exploration Data Integration and Risk Assessment
by Juliano Magalhaes Macedo, Marcio Rocha Me1lo, Vladimir Oliveira Elias, Bjorn P. Wygrala, and Robert G. Tscherny

A Dynamic Approach to Understanding the Structural and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Niger Delta
by Michael G. Mann, Rich Wiener, Valerie Goggin, and David Advocate

Boldly Interpreting Where Geophysics Does Not lead: Using Geologic Observations and Structural Restoration to Confidently Infer Subsalt Geometry Adjacent to Tahiti, DW-GOM
by Donald A. Medwedeff, Jacob Diedjomahor, and Greg Schoenborn

High Resolution Direct Geochemistry and Remote Sense Applied to the Petroleum System Concept to Reduce Exploration Risk
by Marcio Rocha Mello, J. Michael Moldowan, J. Magalhaes Macedo, and Carlos Leandro Da Silva

Reservoir Characterisation of Deep-Water Clastics - A Multi-Disciplinary Approach, Offshore Nigeria - A Case Study
by Abhilasha Mohit, Philip Ringrose, Stephen David Johnson, Kjetil Nordahl, Steven Morris, and Eirik Vik

Predicting the Quality of Potentially Biodegraded Oils in Deep Offshore Lower Congo Basin: An Integrated Approach
by Alain Morash, Jean-Luc Pittion, Denis Levache, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Eric Mure, and Ilidio Silva

Structural Timing and Hydrocarbon Charge Modeling in the Southeastern Deepwater Niger Delta
by Sankar Muhuri, Michael Roberts, and Michael Hertle

Reservoir Contact Monitoring and Field Development Using Carbon/Oxygen Logging and Pressure Gradient Analysis - A Nigeria Offshore Case Study
by Parijat Mukerji, Oluwa Jide, and Peter Weinheber

Delineation of Gravity-Flow Depositional Elements within the Miocene Succession in the Toe-Thrusted Domain of the Niger Delta Deep-Offshore
by Claudio Nini, Lorenzo Lipparini, Babatunde Ogunshote, and Michel Vivier

Sequence Stratigraphy of an Offshore Field, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
by M. E Nton and T. B. Esan

Industry-Universities Cooperation for Sustenance of Technological Development
by Joseph I. Nwachukwu and Olagoke O. Akinrinmade

Building All Purpose 3D Earth Models for Use in Green Field Exploration Settings for Time to Depth Conversion, Pore Pressure Prediction and Amplitude Calibration from Rock Properties
by Chike Nwosu

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Bonga 702 and 690 Reservoirs: Loop Scale Seismic Interpretation and Modeling Sub-Seismic Reservoir Architecture for Reservoir Performance Prediction
by Ciaran O'Byrne, Carlos Pirmez, Mark Barton, Frans Van der Vlugt, Irene Espejo, Arfan Khan, and Wilbert Bernard

Petrography, Diagenesis and Reservoir Development of Sandstones in the Asu River Group, Lower Benue Trough, Southeastern Nigeria
by Minapuye E. Odigi

Miocene Deltaic Sequence in the X- Field, Northwestern Niger Delta: An Integrated Sequence Stratigraphic Approach
by U. Odumah and B. D. Ako

Facies Analysis Application from Clastic Reservoir, Niger Delta
by Taofeek Ademola Ogunyemi and Peter Schlicht

Characterizing Complex Lithology and Architecture of Seismic Volumes of Leveed Channel Reservoirs by Scaled Outcrop Characterization
by O. T. Ojo, R. M. Slatt, A. J. Witten, S. K. VanDyke, M. Burnett, E. M. Hernandez, and O. S. Ilaboya

Facies Architecture and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous Sediments in the Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria
by Olusola J. Ojo and Samuel O. Akande

Hunting and Developing New Talents
by Kingsley Ojoh, Anthony Abolarin, and Jacques Estival

Seismic AVO Modeling and Amplitude Calibration to Rock Property for Pore Fluid Prediction
by Chima Okorie

Lead Identification in Part of the Northern Depobelt, Niger Delta, Nigeria
by Peter S. Ola

Trends in Nigeria Oil Resources: An Appraisal
by P. S. Ola and Victoria Ikimalo

Basement Induced Active Faults and their Effects on Cretaceous and Tertiary Sedimentary Successions in Offshore Benin Basin, Nigeria
by Solomon O. Olabode and John A. Adekoya

Monte-Carlo Modeling of Some Niger Delta Slope Events
by M. I. Oladapo, J. S. Ojo, M. O. Olorunfemi, and B. A. Adetola

Conditions Necessary for Lateral Correlatability of Sequence Boundaries -An Overview
by Mary Taiwo Olowokere and John Sunday Ojo

Managing People and Protecting Corporate Accountability in the Nigerian E & P Scene
by K. Mosto Onuoha

Northwest Niger Delta Regional Geologic Framework and Chronostratigraphy
by Val Onyia, Adedoja Ojelabi, Elliot Ibie, Unwana Nkeme, Richard C. Haack, Louise Linden, and Joshua Adubiobi

Biostratigraphy and Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction of Limestones Exposed at Sagamu Quarry, Eastern Dahomey Basin
by Seun O. Oredein and Adewale Akinmosin

Evaluation of Low-Resistivity pay with Oil Base Mud Imager and NMP techniques, Example from Deep Water Nigeria
by Kamal Osman, Parvez Butt, and Souvick Saha

Methodologies for Reservoir Prediction South Angola
by Kelly Papesh, Liz Allison, Anthony Sprague, Steve Keidel, Vicki Springer, and Sebastiao Domingos

Establishing the Deep-water Limits to West African E & P Areas: The Geology of Ultra-wide Continental Shelves and the Law of the Sea
by Lindsay Parson, David Roberts, and Robin Cleverly

Angola Block 18
by John L. Peak

Developing World Class Deepwater Capabilities: Value Creation through Partnerships
by James Pearce, Nita Nautiyal, and Tad Schirmer

Attenuation of Residual Multiples and Coherent Noise in the Wavelet Transform Domain
by Tamara Pokrovskaia and Richard Wombell

Total Volume Interpretation: A Holistic Approach to Seismic Structure and Reservoir Characterisation
by Nicholas D. J. Purday, R. William Keach, II, and Jason P. Sutton

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High Coverage OBM Images for Reservoir Characterization - Deep offshore Angola Case Study
by Sylvain Riba, Nathalie Bordas - Le Floch, and Frederico Domingos

Geologic History and Petroleum Systems of the Eastern Deepwater Niger Delta
by Michael J. Roberts

Pressure Testing while Drilling in Unconsolidated Sediments Offshore Angola
by Francois Rodot, Enrique Chiapello, Fabrice Cantin, Matthias Meister, Roland Chemali, Joerg Markwart, and Emmanuel Penna

Stratigraphic Trapping in a Proximal Submarine Canyon: The Gabela Discovery, Angola, Block 14
by Joy M. Roth, George Burg, and Robert J. Minck

Complexities of Canyon Deposition and Methodology to Mitigate Uncertainties: Gabela Field Angola Block 14
by Joy M. Roth, Kathy Mabe, George Burg, Robert A. Bartusiak, John R. Baillie, and William Foley

Petroleum Systems of the Gulf of Guinea and the Alba Field - Equatorial Guinea
by Philip Rowell and J. D. Carballo

Seismic Imaging: Integration of Stuctural Studies and New Methodologies in Sub-Salt Domain
by Jean-Jacques Schnitzler, Laurent Lemaistre, Remy Martin, Jean-Loup Montenat, Paul Sexton, and Lussende Lupini

Influence of Salt Thickness on the Style of Thrust Belts in Angola
by Greg Schoenborn, Douglas Goff, and Gyorgy Marton

The Tres Pasos Formation, Chilean Patagonia: An Ancient Outcropping Slope Succession with Analog value for West African Slope Reservoirs
by Michael R. Shultz

A Comparative Analysis of Pre and Post Stack Lithology Prediction: Pre-Stack Wide Angle AVO Inversion and Post-Stack Sweetness Seismic Cube in Block 14, Offshore Angola
by Mark Smithard and Guy Delorme

Unconventional Deepwater Hydrocarbon Traps
by Dave Steele

The Petroleum Systems of Deep Water Namibia
by Roger Swart

Tombua-Landana on the Road from Discovery towards Development in Angola Block 14: A Success Story
by James F. Swartz, John F. Dunn, John Baillie, and Nelson Pacavira

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Sedimentological Models of the Oligocene and Miocene Malembo Formation in Offshore Angola (Lower Congo Basin)
by Francois Temple and Olivier Broucke

The Role of Petroleum Geochemistry for the Evaluation of Petroleum Systems in Deepwater
by Luiz A. F. Trindade and Henrique L. B. Penteado

Seismic Stratigraphy of X-field in the Niger Delta
by James Chijioke Ukachukwu

The Conjugate Margins of the South Atlantic: Exploration of Deeper Plays
by Patrick Unternehr, Philippe De Clarens, and Simon Russell

Evaluating Reservoirs For Secondary Recovery (Waterflooding), A Case Study of Nigerian Reservoir with Computer Aided Approach
by Ubon S. Usen, Uju M. Ezendu, and Michael A. Osuagwu

From Fan Axis to Fan Margin - Example From a Slope Setting, South-western Karoo Basin, South Africa
by Willem Van Der Merwe and De Ville Wickens

3D Reservoir Grid Construction and Characterization of a Deepwater Turbidite Reservoir, Angola
by Ricardo P. Van-Deste

Deepwater Angola; Stratigraphic and Structural Development of the Pre-Salt, Implication for Source Rock Distribution
by Francisco Van-Dunen, Luppo Kuilman, and Kjell-Owe Hager

Similarities and Differences between Salt and Shale Tectonics
by Bruno C. Vendeville

Deepwater Angola: A Revitalized Play Concept, the Pinda Group
by Paula Maria Dreva Pires Viegas, Geoffrey Grant, Fukieno M. Kuame, and Francisco C. V-Dunem

Understanding Deep Water Turbiditic Environment Based on Stratigraphic Architecture, Fine Scale Seismic Picking, Outcrops and Present Day Analogues
by Jacques Vittori

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An Upper Cretaceous Petroleum System from Offshore Cameroon
by Ritchie Wayland, Dorene B. West, Xijin Liu, Heather M. Perfetta, and Paul F. Ostendorf

Development of the Opuama Canyon Complex
by William D. Wiggins, Pilar E. Garcia, Greg Schoenborn, Michael Roberts, Jacob Diedjomahor, and Joao Keller

TATUI Laboratory Information Management System -- An Internet Solution for Laboratory Automation
by Yubo Xu, Juliano Magalhaes Macedo, Marcio Rocha Mello, Paul Brooks, Vladimir Oliveira Elias, Gilberto Paulo Carmo, Marcio Ferreira, and Guilherme Maranhao