--> Efficient Inclusion of Faults and Fault Flow Properties in Reservoir Models. The Example of Karish Field, Offshore Israel
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Efficient Inclusion of Faults and Previous HitFaultNext Hit Flow Properties in Reservoir Models. The Example of Karish Field, Offshore Israel


Faults in siliciclastic reservoirs are normally conceived as planar surfaces in 3D seismic data, and are incorporated as single surfaces in reservoir simulation models due to geometrical and numerical limitations. However, examination of reservoir-analogue faults at both outcrop and laboratory scales reveals that the former often comprise structurally complex three-dimensional regions with highly variable distributions of single and two-phase Previous HitfaultNext Hit-rock flow properties. This volume and property segmentation may have a remarkable effect on cross-Previous HitfaultNext Hit flow paths, and eventually on trapped volumes and hydrocarbon recovery. Understanding Previous HitfaultNext Hit sealing processes and variations is pivotal in evaluating seal integrity, reservoir compartmentalization and migration pathways, hence, should not be discounted in either exploration or development studies. How do faults seal? The major mechanisms that direct the sealing character of faults are either the juxtaposition of reservoir units against sealing lithologies (juxtaposition seals) or Previous HitfaultNext Hit-rock seals dominated by the flow properties of the faulted interfaces. Industry established workflows exist for reservoir-scale Previous HitfaultNext Hit property prediction and quantification. In the general run of things, such an assessment demands undertaking a thorough structural analysis of the available 3D seismic data and identification and mapping of faults. Subsequently, construction of Previous HitfaultNext Hit surface juxtaposition maps (Allan diagrams) spotlight at once both potential juxtaposition seals and cross-Previous HitfaultNext Hit flow corridors. The most important Previous HitfaultNext Hit property for calculating the sealing strength of a Previous HitfaultNext Hit zone is the Previous HitfaultNext Hit-rock capillary entry (or threshold) pressure as a function of the clay composition of the Previous HitfaultNext Hit gouge. Previous HitFaultNext Hit clay distribution is universally represented using applied proxy-properties (e.g., Shale Gouge Ratio – SGR, Effective Shale Gouge Ratio - ESGR) and capillary entry pressure is mapped onto the Previous HitfaultNext Hit planes using industry-standard formulas. The calculated threshold pressure can eventually be used to predict the maximum height of hydrocarbon column that a particular Previous HitfaultNext Hit can support. In production schemes, reservoir performance indicators signify the potentially impairing across-Previous HitfaultNext Hit fluid flow behaviour, be it poor productivity/injectivity, rapid decline rate, early water break-through, Previous HitfaultNext Hit seal breakdown, and/or unexpected 4D seismic response. The first step in determining the influence of faults on reservoir performance is the flow characterisation of faults and Previous HitfaultNext Hit-related products and their representation in reservoir simulation models. Faults alter the reservoir model transmissibilities by introducing new cell connections and new contact areas between the juxtaposed cells adjacent to the Previous HitfaultNext Hit interfaces. Likewise, natural variability in Previous HitfaultNext Hit zone permeabilities and thicknesses affect the effective transmissibility of the faulted cells. Contemporary reservoir simulation studies conventionally treat faults as either sealing or open to flow by assigning transmissibility multipliers of 0 or 1 respectively. These multipliers modify transmissibilities between faulted grid-blocks, yet they do not account for the inherent geometrical and Previous HitfaultNext Hit-property heterogeneity. To capture this effect, geologically sound methods for estimating Previous HitfaultNext Hit transmissibility multipliers are utilised. These methods calculate Previous HitfaultNext Hit-rock properties for every faulted cell connection as a function of Previous HitfaultNext Hit shale content, grid-block permeabilities and grid geometries. Eventually, these techniques allow Previous HitfaultNext Hit-rock properties to be implicitly incorporated to full-field reservoir simulation models. The present study applies the workflows described above in the Karish field, offshore Israel. The Previous HitfaultNext Hit seal analysis results were appropriately calibrated to allow coherent conclusions to be drawn in terms of reservoir behaviour. Effective Shale Gouge Ratio (ESGR) was calibrated against RCI pressure data across the field. By collating the calibrated ESGR with across-Previous HitfaultNext Hit pressure difference from global datasets, Previous HitfaultNext Hit-seal failure envelopes were drawn suggesting maximum column heights that can be sustained for particular Previous HitfaultNext Hit-clay compositions. In addition the influence of the predicted Previous HitfaultNext Hit-rock properties on the production figures was investigated. Rigorous and geologically credible Previous HitfaultNext Hit transmissibility models were constructed, and the impact of faults on likely cross-Previous HitfaultNext Hit fluid flow and final recoverable volumes was evaluated. The upcoming field development will allow for further calibration of Previous HitfaultNext Hit analysis results by integrating with history-matching and 4D (time lapse) seismic monitoring. Repeating the exercise will further refine and constrain any current uncertainties associated with column height estimates and likely Previous HitfaultTop-controlled reservoir compartmentalisation.