AAPG Middle East Geoscience Technology Workshop, Integrated Emerging Exploration Concepts

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An Earth Systems Science Approach: Understanding Siliciclastic Input into Mesozoic Depositional Systems of the Arabian Plate


During the Mesozoic Era, episodes of siliciclastic input onto the dominantly carbonate Arabian shelf form important elements of petroleum plays, creating proven and potential reservoirs, source rocks, and seals. We review the temporal and spatial extent of these siliciclastic episodes in the context of tectonic, climatic, and eustatic events affecting the Arabian Plate that may have been acting independently or coincidently to control siliciclastic input by means of hinterland uplift, influence on denudation and run off, incision, and creation of sediment pathways and accommodation space. Particularly important phases of siliciclastic input are all associated with humid climate episodes and occur in (1) the Early Triassic (Olenekian Sudair shale) coincident with major eustatic lowering and rifting on the northern part of the Arabian plate; (2) Late Triassic (late Norian initial Minjur Sandstone) coincident with East Mediterranean rifting and a major eustatic sea-level fall; (3) Middle Jurassic (early Bajocian initial Dhruma Sandstone) coincident with localized uplift and immediately postdating a eustatic sea-level fall in the Aalenian; (4) Early Cretaceous (late Valanginian–Barremian Zubair sandstone) postdating a Valanginian eustatic lowering and uplift in northern and western Arabia; (5) Mid-Cretaceous (latest Aptian–middle Albian Burgan Sandstone) coincident with Arabian shield uplift and a eustatic low. Other episodes of siliciclastic input also occur, although they tend to be more localized.