AAPG Geoscience Technology Workshop

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Organic-inorganic interaction and their effects on Deep petroleum systems

Abstract

As a relatively stable craton block in the earth system, the petroliferous basin is influenced by the evolution of the earth system from the early development environment of source rocks, hydrocarbon formation, and reservoir dissolution to hydrocarbon accumulation or destruction. As a link between the internal and external factors of the basin, deep fluids run through the whole process of hydrocarbon formation and accumulation through organic-inorganic interaction. The nutrients carried by deep fluids promote the bloom of hydrocarbon-generating organisms and extra addition of carbon and hydrogen source, which are beneficial to the development of high-quality source rock and enhancement of the hydrocarbon generation potential. The energy carried by the deep fluid promotes the early maturation of the source rock and facilitates the hydrocarbon generation by activation and hydrogenation in high-mature hydrocarbon sources. The dissolution alteration of carbonate rocks and clastic reservoirs by CO2-rich deep fluids improves the deep reservoir space, thus extending the oil and gas reservoir space into greater depth. The extraction of deeply retained crude oil by deep supercritical CO2 and the displacement of CH4 in shale have both improved the hydrocarbon fluidity in deep and tight reservoirs. Simultaneously, the energy and material carried by deep fluids (C, H, and catalytic substances) not only induce inorganic CH4 formation by Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and “hydrothermal petroleum” generation from organic matter by thermal activity but also cause the hydrothermal alteration of crude oil from organic sources. Therefore, from the perspective of the interaction of the earth’s sphere, deep fluids not only input a significant amount of exogenous C and H into sedimentary basins but also improve the reservoir space for oil and gas, as well as their enrichment and accumulation efficiencies.