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3-D Basin Model of the Serbian Banat Region of the Pannonian Basin

Abstract

1D, 2D, and 3D integrated seismic-petrophysic basin analysis of the Serbian Banat Region of the Pannonian Basin provides new insight into exploration strategies in a mature basin. The 2D basin models were constructed along 2D seismic lines incorporating 28 well boreholes, 26 virtual wells, and then integrated into a 3D post Triassic volume of the eastern part of the Banat region of Pannonian Basin, Serbia. One major tectonic extension ∼7.3 to ∼5.2 Ma requires rifting betas ranging from ∼1.11 to ∼1.18 along an East-West regional seismic line, consistent with the development of the graben just west of the Kikinda Szeged High. It is important to note, the borehole stratigraphy suggests a possible post-depositional tectonic inversion, with the deepest part of the North Banat graben just west of the Kikinda Szeged horst to be composed of the coarser clastic proximal facies of the Upper Miocene Endrod and to become distal and finer westward. Such observed sediment textures are consistent with the seismic stratigraphy which shows the distal portion to presently onlap the North Backa High which must have initiated as a downlap before the High was uplifted. Accompanying this development was the deposition of the Szolnok, Algyo, Ujfalu, and younger units, which then prograded from the west. Models suggest the major source rocks are the Type II Badenian and Endrod with measured maximum TOC's of 4.34 and 2.18 respectively. The deepest borehole reveals that the Endrod entered the early mature window at 6.05 Ma, shortly after the maximum crustal stretching event. Importantly, if inversion occurred, significant potential migration pathways would accumulate HCs against (if major fault is impermeable) or through and upon the horst (if major fault is permeable) on the eastward side of the North Banat Graben, in both the Endrod and Szolnok reservoirs, especially where the Endrod the eastern reservoir quality is the highest. Therefore, the faults exhibit a generally major influence upon migration as sealing boundaries. Possible traps suggested by the 3D results are force fold anticlines, angular unconformities, normal fault traps, reverse fault traps, buttress or onlap sands, sandstone pinchouts, and updip facies changes. These play concepts may have validity for exploration in similar regions of the Pannonian Basin elsewhere.