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Integrated Analysis of Shallow Fluid Flow Phenomena and Previous HitHydrocarbonNext Hit Migration in the Southern Kwanza Basin, Offshore Angola


Integrated analysis of high-quality three-dimensional (3D) seismic data, surface geochemistry, and satellite imagery in the southern Kwanza Basin document the widespread occurrence of past and present fluid flow phenomena, and highlights the Previous HithydrocarbonNext Hit prospectivity of the post-salt interval. Seismic scale fluid flow phenomena are defined by seep-related seafloor features including pockmarks, extrusive features interpreted as mud or asphalt volcanoes, and the uncommon occurrence of gas hydrates pingoes. Shallow fluid flow phenomena are characterized by the presence of paleo-pockmarks, Previous HitdirectNext Hit Previous HithydrocarbonNext Hit Previous HitindicatorsNext Hit (DHIs), bottom simulating reflections (BSRs), and pipes. Seabed evidences of migrated thermogenic hydrocarbons and satellite seepage slicks are used to differentiate Previous HithydrocarbonNext Hit migration from shallow fluid flow processes including dewatering and biogenic gas migration. The analysis constrains the fluid plumbing system defined by the spatial occurrence of stratigraphic carriers and seal bypass systems through time. Detailed integrations and iterative interpretations have confirmed the presence of mature source rock and effective migration pathways with significant implications towards petroleum systems analysis of the post salt interval. Integration of seismic, geochemistry and satellite data represents a robust method to document and interpret fluid flow phenomena along continental margins, and highlight the importance of fluid flow studies with regards to petroleum system analysis and Previous HithydrocarbonTop prospectivity in challenging, high-cost deep-water exploration settings.