Petroleum System Analysis of the Mishrif Formation in the Ratawi, Zubair, Rumaila North and Rumaila South Oil Fields, Southern Iraq
Five oil samples reservoired in the Cretaceous Mishrif Formation from the Ratawi, Zubair, Rumaila North and Rumaila South fields have been analysed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). In addition, fifteen core samples from the Mishrif Formation and 81 core samples from the Lower Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic have been subjected to source rock analysis and palynological and petrographic description. These observations have been integrated with electric wireline log response. The reservoirs of the Mishrif Formation show measured porosities up to 28% and the oils are interpreted as being sourced from: (1) Type II carbonate rocks interbedded with shales and deposited in a reducing marine environment with low salinity based on biomarkers and isotopic analysis; (2) Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous age based on sterane ratios, analysis of isoprenoids and isotopes, and biomarkers, and (3) Thermally mature source rocks, based on the biomarker analysis.
The geochemical analysis suggests that the Mishrif oils may have been sourced from the Upper Jurassic Najma or Sargelu formations or the Lower Cretaceous Sulaiy Formation. Visual kerogen assessment and source rock analysis show the Sulaiy Formation to be a good quality source rock with high total organic carbon (up to 8 wt% TOC) and rich in amorphogen. The Lower Cretaceous source rocks were deposited in a suboxic-anoxic basin and show good hydrogen indices. They are buried at depths in excess of 5,000 m and are likely to have charged Mishrif reservoirs during the Miocene. The migration from the source rock is likely to be largely vertical and possibly along faults before reaching the vuggy, highly permeable reservoirs of the Mishrif Formation. Structural traps in the Mishrif Formation reservoir are likely to have formed in the Late Cretaceous.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90090©2009 AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, June 7-10, 2009