Utilization of Lokpanta Oil Shale in Portland Cement Manufacturing in Nigeria: A Thermodynamic Approach
Olugbenga A. Ehinola1 and Qinshan Zhu2
1Dept. of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Multiphase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, Beijing, China
A thermodynamic model is applied to calculate the amount of oil shale ash (OSA), which could be used as raw material in the manufacturing of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC). XRF, XRD and SEM analysis of the materials were carried out and the thermodynamic properties for pure materials in the CaO-SiO2 system are obtained from literatures, database of FACTSAGE and STGE.
The main minerals and liquid phase present after blending OSA with Portland cement (employing different blending ratios) at different temperature indicate that 15 to 20 % of OSA would be suitable as clinker material. A temperature of 1300 and 1400OC could be used for the blending ratio due to relatively high amount of C3S and C2S. The XRD and SEM of the blend at 1350OC further show that C3S and C2S are the dominant species present. Addition of OSA will definitely lower the clinkering temperature by 50 to 100 OC. Thermomechanical analysis result for the suggested blend ratio shows that the liquid formed at temperatures higher than 1150OC.
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