Abstract: CO2 Flood Potential of California Oil Reservoirs and Possible CO2 Sources
JESCHKE, PETER, Millennium Energy Inc.; LANNY SCHOELING, Shell CO2 Co. Ltd.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been used to enhance oil recovery for over 20 years throughout the world. CO2 is used in both miscible and immiscible floods depending on the type of oil and class of reservoir. At present, 75 CO2 floods are being implemented in four countries. In the Permian Basin alone, over 50 floods are currently operational injecting billions of cubic feet per day of CO2 and producing over 140,000 barrels of oil per day. Estimates indicate that an additional 10 billion barrels of oil in the United States could be recovered by CO2 flooding depleted oil reservoirs depending on economic and reservoir/fluid constraints. Next to the Permian Basin, California has the second largest CO2 flood potential in the United States. After a brief description of the immiscible and miscible CO2 processes, this paper presents the results of a detailed study of the CO2 potential of California oil reservoirs, with emphasis on the southern San Joaquin Basin. Also described are the various current and potential CO2 sources that could supply California, from pipeline transport of naturally occurring CO2 to flue gas capture of anthropogenic CO2, along with estimated costs of each supply and discussions on the status of developing technologies.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90911©2000 AAPG Pacific Section and Western Region Society of Petroleum Engineers, Long Beach, California