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ABSTRACT: Distinguishing Water Saturation Changes from Porosity or Clay Content Changes Using Multicomponent Seismic Data

ZHU, FUPING, RICHARD L. GIBSON, JR., JOEL S. WATKINS, and SUNG HWAN YUH , Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

It is difficult to predict whether gas accumulation is low or high in reservoir pore spaces prior to drilling. When reservoirs include lateral porosity or clay content changes, this task is even more difficult. However, the problem is easier to address with high-quality multicomponent seismic data. This paper proposes to use DRps/DRpp as a partial gas indicator (PGI), where Rps and Rpp are defined as the change in the P-SV and P-P reflection coefficients, respectively, from an inferred background portion of the reservoir to the target portion of the reservoir. The background is assumed to be 100% water saturated.

The DRps/DRpp ratio behaves quite differently for high and low gas saturations, as shown by theoretical reflection coefficient computation for a range of examples using the Zoeppritz and Gassmann's equations. The responses of DRps/DRpp to porosity and clay content changes are computed using empirical relationships among velocities, porosity and clay content (Wang and Nur, 1992; Han et. al., 1986; Eberhart-Phillips et. al., 1989). The ratio is insensitive to the magnitude of porosity or clay content changes, and this behavior is very different from the variations in the ratio associated with changes in gas saturation.

Theoretical reflection coefficient computation, modeling and synthetic seismograms have shown that DRps/DRpp is an effective direct hydrocarbon indicator and PGI for all three types of gas reservoirs, at both shalesand and sandshale interfaces. It can distinguish water saturation changes from porosity or clay content changes and separate regions of high gas saturation from low saturation areas.


AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90908©2000 GCAGS, Houston, Texas