ABSTRACT: Role of Sequence Stratigraphy in Reservoir Characterization and Solving Waterflood Production Problems, Grayburg Formation (Permian-Guadalupian), Eunice Monument South Unit, Lea County, New Mexico
LINDSAY, ROBERT F., RICHARD H. JONES, CHARLES M. KEEFER, and DENNIS L. HENDRIX, Chevron U.S.A., Midland, TX
The Grayburg Formation was deposited upon a carbonate ramp as shallowing-upward fifth-order parasequences of interbedded carbonates (dominant) and siliciclastics (subordinate). Sandstones were deposited as offshore shallow-marine blankets, and form some but not all parasequence bases. Seaward, carbonates were deposited as ooid grainstones/mud-poor packstones in a high-energy shoal complex. Landward, carbonates are mud-rich packstones/wackestones that were deposited in a low-energy back-shoal environment.
Reservoir-quality porosity (grainstones/mud-poor packstones) is preserved and enhanced by (1) depositional controls, such as bed thickness, grain richness, and grain size; (2) dissolution during subaerial exposure; (3) dolomitization (early diagenesis); and (4) dissolution during deep burial (late diagenesis). Thinner bedded, mud-rich packstones/wackestones contain lower reservoir porosity updip, and eventually form a stratigraphic trap.
Shallowing-upward parasequences are thicker downdip in the shoal and are thinner and more numerous in the back-shoal. Bifurcation of parasequences was recognized in cored wells, 1 mi apart, and in outcrop measured sections (Guadalupe Mountains) on 1-, 5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-ac spacing. Outcrop studies helped us understand subsurface interwell heterogeneities on a bed-by-bed and parasequence-by-parasequence basis.
Using reservoir characteristics and outcrop studies, and applying sequence stratigraphic interpretation have enhanced reservoir management during initial waterflood and reservoir fill. Early water break through occurred in EMSU well 119. Here, a high-porosity high-permeability bed within one parasequence was connected with EMSU injection well 108. Once reservoir connectivity was understood the flow unit in well 119 was squeezed off. The injection well immediately built up pressure and redirected the waterflood. Later, an oil bank arrived at EMSU well 109, another offset producer.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #91018©1992 AAPG Southwest Section Meeting, Midland, Texas, April 21-24, 1992 (2009)