ABSTRACT: Xenoliths from Late Cretaceous Seamounts in the Central Pacific: Cumulates of Fractionating Alkalic Basalt Magma Chambers
Alice S. Davis, Walter B. Friesen, Leda-Beth Pickthorn, Malcolm S. Pringle, David A. Clague
Abundant xenoliths in alkalic basalt were recovered from two Late Cretaceous seamounts in the Central Pacific. One seamount, located in the Phoenix archipelago (lat 0°22^primeS, long 176°05^primeW), is dated by 40Ar/39Ar techniques as 65 Ma. The other seamount, located in the northern Line Islands (lat 15°39^primeN, long 170°23^primeW), is dated as 70 Ma. Host lavas are basanite and differentiated alkalic basalt. Mafic xenolith assemblages consist of clinopyroxene with variable amounts of amphibole and mica. Intermediate assemblages have abundant feldspar in addition to the mafic minerals. Rare felsic xenoliths consist of two or more feldspars. Variable amounts of apatite, titanite, and magnetite are poikilitically enclosed in maf c phases, and minor feldspathoids are present in some xenoliths. Most xenoliths are holocrystalline with fine- to medium-grained, equigranular cumulus
texture, but two xenoliths have a seriate, interlocking crystal framework in a small amount of glassy to microcrystalline matrix. Clinopyroxene in the holocrystalline samples is partially replaced by amphibole. In a few samples, extensive replacement of clinopyroxene by rounded amphibole grains results in a nearly granoblastic texture. Clinopyroxene compositions range from diopside to ferrosalite and are essentially Cr-free but generally have high Ti and Al contents. Cr-rich diopside and Al-augite, characteristic of mantle clinopyroxene, are absent. Feldspars include plagioclase, anorthoclase, and sanidine. Mineral compositions of xenoliths are similar to those of phenocrysts in the host lavas, indicating that these xenoliths are not metasomatized mantle material, but rather are cumul tes from fractionating alkalic basalt magma chambers.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90097©1990 Fifth Circum-Pacific Energy and Mineral Resources Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, July 29-August 3, 1990