Figure 5. Oligocene reconstruction of pre-Mesozoic continental basement,
northern Andes, based on vector displacements from Figure 4.
"Retro-deformed" longitude/latitude grid is created by smoothing the
lines across block boundaries after block restoration. Red outline is
present day South America; cities, fields, rivers and geographic
features (blue) are shown in palinspastic coordinates
Click here for sequence of present-day map of northern South America
(Figure 3) and Oligocene reconstruction (Figure 5).