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Figure 5. Oligocene reconstruction of pre-Mesozoic continental basement, northern Andes, based on vector displacements from Figure 4. "Retro-deformed" longitude/latitude grid is created by smoothing the lines across block boundaries after block restoration. Red outline is present day South America; cities, fields, rivers and geographic features (blue) are shown in palinspastic coordinates

Click here for sequence of present-day map of northern South America (Figure 3) and Oligocene reconstruction (Figure 5).