Abstract: Overcoming Earth Resource and Hazard Constraints on Mineral and Energy Development Through Planning
William J. Kockelman
The vast Circum-Pacific region contains abundant mineral and energy resources as well as numerous geologic and hydrologic hazards including: phenomena commonly related to earthquakes, such as volcanic activity, fault displacement, ground shaking, liquefaction, submarine slides, landslides, and tsunamis; floods; and coastal erosion.
Improperly located or designed developments will preempt mineral- and energy-extraction options or be affected by geologic or hydrologic hazards. Such development includes industrial, commercial, residential, roads, utilities, and community facilities. Some of the effects on this development are loss of resources, disruption of extractive operations, damage to equipment and facilities, injuries, and loss of life.
Government agencies and private corporations can adopt land-use plans or land-development policies that (1) protect resources, (2) avoid hazards, (3) reduce exposure, (4) design for maximum displacement or stress, and (5) control disruption and damage by use of standby emergency equipment and material. These plans and policies would have as their goal the health, safety, and general welfare of people as well as an economically viable mineral- or energy-extraction operation.
Prerequisite to the preparation of such plans and policies is the collection or development of specific resource and hazard information in a form usable by both the public and corporate planner. Examples of available information include maps of copper-potential, active-fault, landslide-susceptibility, and seismic-hazard zones.
The various methods and devices for implementing public and corporate plans or policies include resource and hazardous area acquisition in advance of development, land-use and development practices and regulations, public information and education, financial policies and incentives, razing or reinforcement of substandard structures, hazard monitoring, warning and evacuation systems, engineering protection works, and detailed on-site investigations. Examples include, a federal hazard warning system, a state fault-hazard zone act, a county geologic-hazard ordinance, and a county resource-management zoning district.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90962©1978 AAPG 2nd Circum-Pacific Energy and Minerals Resource Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii