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Previous HitPermeabilityNext Hit Estimation Based on Pore Characterization and Flow Modeling From Thin-Sections Image Analysis of Grain-Dominated Carbonates

Abstract

Image analysis can provide insights regarding pore networks, including pore sizes and types, and can also be useful for Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit estimation. Previous HitPermeabilityNext Hit estimation based on image analysis is a good alternative when intact core-plugs are not available for laboratory measurement. While there is much research on Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit estimation from 2D and 3D images or models, accurately estimating Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit for carbonates, which contains highly variable pore networks, is still challenging. In this study, a method for Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit estimation based on thin-section image analysis and 2D Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit simulation was developed for grain-dominated carbonates based on semi-theoretical analysis of 2D and 3D Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit (K2D and K3D) relationships. The mathematical expression of the K2D/K3D is examined with a carbonate grainstone sample, for which both K2D and K3D were obtained through Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit simulation based on micro-CT images. The method was applied to 24 grain-dominated carbonate samples collected from different wells in West Texas and Abu Dubai having large variations in rock textures and fabrics and a broad range of Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit from 0.1 mD to 3200 mD. The representativeness of the thin sections and correct determination of the effective pores are key for accurate Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit estimation. When estimated Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit values were compared to measured values, we found that 92% of the estimated results are within a factor of ±5 of the measured values (a factor of 5 means the ratio of estimated over measured Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit equals 5; a factor of -5 means the ratio of estimated over measured Previous HitpermeabilityNext Hit equals 1/5), and 46% within a factor of ±2. Two-dimensional image analysis and modeling are simpler than those in 3D, but still include the influence of pore shapes and size distribution. Therefore, this thin-section based method can be used as a quick yet reliable way for Previous HitpermeabilityTop estimation.