Multiscalar Forward Modelling of Carbonate Heterogeneity
Cedric M. Griffiths, Chris Dyt, Huang Xiu, and Tristan Salles
CSIRO (Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), Kensington, Australia
Carbonates are challenging. Their very existence often depends on complex interactions between continuously evolving biological organisms and chemical and physical environmental conditions. Post-depositional processes such as subaerial exposure, tectonic stress, burial, and the passage of fluids, all act on the initial rock matrix to produce lithologic, porosity and permeability heterogeneity at all scales.
Several studies have emphasized that depositional facies, combined with diagenetic and stress histories exert a fundamental control on the evolution of flow properties in carbonates, with respect to both matrix and fracture characteristics.
In this document we discuss the use of the stratigraphic forward modelling (SFM) program Sedsim (Griffiths et al, 2001a and b) to test our understanding of carbonate depositional facies distribution at a variety of scales and in different depositional environments.
Modern stratigraphic forward modelling tools enable rapid testing of multiple working hypotheses concerning the relationship between environmental forcing processes and depositional facies over a broad range of scales. The aim of such modelling is to predict rock properties away from wells and below seismic resolution with a given degree of confidence.
Available well, seismic and remote sensing data are used to constrain the model predictions at appropriate resolution rather than develop the facies distribution patterns themselves. At present flow and mechanical properties are linked to each facies or facies combination through either appropriate empirical relationships or via geophysical forward modelling.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #120034©2012 AAPG Hedberg Conference Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates, Saint-Cyr Sur Mer, Provence, France, July 8-13, 2012