AVO Analysis of Long Offset Seismic Data Using 3-D Graphical Analysis
F. Zhu1 and R. L. Gibson2
1Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.
2Texas A&M University
P-wave AVO intercept (A) and gradient (B) crossplotting is widely used for detecting anomalous elastic properties that may be indicative of hydrocarbons, but long offset seismic data are starting to become widely available. It is well known that the two-term AVO equation is only an approximation for angles of incidence less than 30o. However, long-offset seismic data with P-wave angle of incidence much larger than 30o are sometimes used for AVO crossplotting. We show how inaccurate A and B values may result if the twoterm AVO equation is used for prestack seismic data with large incident angles.
A linear Vp-Vs and a Gardner-like Vp-Rho relationship explain the linear relationship between A and B for typical brine-saturated sandstones and shales, and this line passes through the origin. However, in the Gulf of Mexico (Hilterman, 1990) and Gulf of Thailand (Zhu, 2000), the sand velocity is sometimes larger than the shale velocity, while sand density is smaller than the shale density. As a result, the A-B trend of some brine-saturated sandstones and shales may not pass through the origin or may not be linear in the A-B plane. Nevertheless, a linear Vp-Vs relationship holds and the average Vp across the shale and sand interface does not vary significantly. AVO intercept (A), gradient (B) and curvature (C), which can be extracted from long offset prestack seismic data, are expressible in an equation representing a plane the 3-D A-B-C space. Deviations from this plane suggest abnormal velocities and indicate lithology and fluid variations.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90901©2001 GCAGS, Annual Meeting, Shreveport, Louisiana