LaFRENIER, JON E., and JIM DUNKELBERG
1. detailed interpretation of geologically significant time horizons on migrated and stacked time volumes. (The horizons, such as sequence boundaries, unconformities, and faults may be interpreted on 3D and/or 2D seismic data), and
2. iterative map migration and detailed interval velocity analysis, and
3. three dimensional forward modeling and comparison of 3D synthetic volumes to actual 3D seismic data (including amplitude and phase effects).
Interpreted time horizons are converted to depth starting with the shallowest interpreted time horizon. Three dimensional raypath bending is controlled by the dual effects of structural complexity and velocity changes at interfaces (horizons). The horizon's position in depth, its lateral position, structural and stratigraphic reflection geometries and interval velocity is verified via forward modeling using 3D ray-tracing methods. This process is repeated for the total number of horizons to be mapped and on progressively deeper geologic horizons.