Abstract: Structural Styles in Rift Basins: Interpretation Methodology and Examples from Southeast Asia
Elizabeth A. Lorenzetti, Peter A. Brennan, Stephen C. Hook
We present graphical solutions to the extensional fault-related folding equations of Xiao and Suppe (1992), simplifying the prediction of normal fault location or rollover geometry from subsurface data. These equations also predict the extent of bed thinning and elongation in hanging wall strata. We have derived new equations that relate change in fault slip across a fault bend to fault geometry. Applying these equations in seismic interpretation makes it easier to (1) construct balanced cross-sections, (2) account for the slip observed, and (3) determine the growth history of extensional fault-related folds.
We have applied these concepts to several southeast Asian rift basins in Malaysia, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Thailand. These basins were formed by early Tertiary crustal extension, producing rollover structures in which sediment supply generally did not keep up with subsidence. These under-filled, internally drained depressions periodically contained lakes, providing the environment for deposition of organic-rich strata that ultimately became hydrocarbon source rock. Typically, the main basin bounding faults dip 35-55° near their upper terminations and flatten to become subhorizontal. Synthetic and antithetic secondary faults are usually present. Late compaction faulting often propagates upward from major extensional faults and may reactivate the upper portions of these faults. In any basins, late compression produced inversion structures. By applying the concepts of extensional fault-related folding to these basins, we can (1) explain observed geometries, (2) predict poorly imaged geometries, (3) predict the location of source and reservoir facies, and (4) determine the timing of faulting relative to deposition of source and reservoir rocks.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90982©1994 AAPG International Conference and Exhibition, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 21-24, 1994