ABSTRACT: The Lima-Indiana Trend--A Case Study
Brian D. Keith, Lawrence H. Wickstorm
The Lima-Indiana trend (informal designation) is an arcuate oil-and gas-producing trend that extends from north-central Ohio to east-central Indiana and was the United States's first giant "field." More than 375 million bbl of oil and an unknown quantity of natural gas have been produced from the trend since its discovery in 1884 in Findlay, Ohio. Documented production has come from the Ordovician Trenton and Black River limestones. Initial wells were often located for convenience or drilled on a random basis, but in areas of development more regular drilling patterns and spacings were commonly used.
Recent research in Ohio and Indiana has shown that although the trend is located on a broad platform overlying the Findlay arch and the north end of the Cincinnati arch, local reservoir development consists of complex structural and stratigraphic traps. Trapping situations include one or a combination of the following elements: large-scale normal faults associated with anticlines, broad closure on top of arches, small anticlines stepping down into the basin, updip facies change (probably growth-fault related), multiple porosity-permeability pinch-outs related to dolomitization, dissolution porosity associated with fractures and faulting, and local fracture systems. There is a 24-fold difference from the most productive (12,000 bbl/ac--Bowling Green fault zone in Ohio) to the least pro uctive (500 bbl/ac--Trenton field in Indiana) reservoirs in the trend. Future exploration and development success in the Trenton and Black River limestones will be closely linked to finding the proper trapping situation.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90998 AAPG Eastern Section Meeting, London, Ontario, Canada, September 10-12, 1990