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Previous HitVelocityNext Hit Inversion Using Geological Constraints

Jos Van Trier

Reflection seismics can be used to determine the geology of the subsurface. An image of the subsurface is obtained by Previous HitmigrationNext Hit of the seismic data. The Previous HitmigrationNext Hit needs a Previous HitvelocityNext Hit model, which is normally determined from (normal moveout) NMO-Previous HitvelocityNext Hit Previous HitanalysisNext Hit.

However, in areas of complex geology NMO-Previous HitvelocityNext Hit Previous HitanalysisNext Hit fails, and Previous HitmigrationNext Hit-Previous HitvelocityNext Hit Previous HitanalysisNext Hit (an iterative Previous HitmigrationNext Hit process) is necessary. The result of prestack-Previous HitmigrationNext Hit Previous HitvelocityNext Hit Previous HitanalysisNext Hit is usually a smooth Previous HitmigrationNext Hit Previous HitvelocityNext Hit model (i.e., the exact structure and interval velocities of the subsurface are not known).

For an accurate interpretation of the geology, it is necessary to find the structural Previous HitvelocityNext Hit model. The structure boundaries can be determined from the migrated image of the subsurface, using geologic constraints, such as non-crossing interfaces, known dip limits, well-log information, etc.

To determine the velocities inside the structures, geological information, such as behavior of velocities inside the structures (known from well logs or common geological sense), is used to constrain the Previous HitvelocityNext Hit inversion. Two approaches to the Previous HitvelocityNext Hit inversion are investigated: (1) an extension of Previous HitmigrationNext Hit-Previous HitvelocityNext Hit Previous HitanalysisNext Hit and (2) a method that uses amplitude-vs.-offset information in the prestack migrated data.

The smooth Previous HitvelocityNext Hit model is converted to a structural model using the boundaries in the migrated image, and the Previous HitvelocityNext Hit model is updated with an iterative method that minimizes the curvature in the CDP-gather after Previous HitmigrationNext Hit. The method flattens events in the gather before stack, thus improving the stackpower in the stacked image. Events are defined along lines of equal instantaneous phase. So, the method incorporates traveltime and phase information in the inversion.

Amplitude information is considered in the second approach. The amplitude behavior as a function of offset of reflections in prestack migrated CDP-gathers contains information about the Previous HitvelocityNext Hit contrast at the reflector. This information can be incorporated in the Previous HitvelocityTop inversion.

AAPG Search and Discovery Article #91035©1988 AAPG-SEPM-SEG Pacific Sections and SPWLA Annual Convention, Santa Barbara, California, 17-19 April 1988.